Later Jewish philosophers, such as Gersonides and Elijah Delmedigo, followed the school of Averroes and played a part in transmitting Averroist thought to medieval Europe. " He also provided early arguments for "a "necessary being" as cause of all other existents.". Mulla Sadra bought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialism to existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, several centuries before this occurred in Western philosophy.. Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul (though Jews do not necessarily view the soul as eternal); the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Heaven), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell). After mineral life evolves vegetation. ), This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 19:23. Atomistic philosophies are found very early in Islamic philosophy, and represent a synthesis of the Greek and Indian ideas. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, made important contributions to the philosophy of history. This is due to Biruni describing the idea of artificial selection and then applying it to nature:. Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists". Oliver Leaman, an expert on Islamic philosophy, points out that the objections of notable theologians are rarely directed at philosophy itself, but rather at the conclusions the philosophers arrived at. Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. His philosophy and ontology is considered to be just as important to Islamic philosophy as Martin Heidegger's philosophy later was to Western philosophy in the 20th century. 2001 May;7(3):372-6. "Al-Jahiz And the Rise of Biological Evolutionism", harvp error: no target: CITEREFMorelonRashed1996 (, "Ikhwan as-Safa and their Rasa'il: A Critical Review of a Century and a Half of Research", by A. L. Tibawi, as published in volume 2 of. One of the first debates was that between partisans of the Qadar (قدر meaning "Fate"), who affirmed free will; and the Jabarites (جبر meaning "force", "constraint"), who believed in fatalism. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency. Nader El-Bizri, "In Defence of the Sovereignty of Philosophy: al-Baghdadi's Critique of Ibn al-Haytham's Geometrisation of Place", El-Bizri (2007) and handouts of El-Bizri's lectures at the Dept. Early Islamic philosophy began with al-Kindi in the 2nd century of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and ended with Averroes (Ibn Rushd) in the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE), broadly coinciding with the period known as the Golden Age of Islam. Islamic philosophy of life requires full manifestation of personality, as man is a polivalent being. Animals that survive to breed can pass on their successful characteristics to offspring. Al-Dinawari (828–896), considered the founder of Arabic botany for his Book of Plants, discussed plant evolution from its birth to its death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit. Some Islamic scholars argued that Qiyas refers to inductive reasoning. , [These books] state that God first created matter and invested it with energy for development. The Muslim historiography helped indirectly and modestly to shape present day historical thinking. The teachings contained in the Holy Quran and the Law promulgated by Islam were designed to raise man to moral, intellectual and spiritual perfection. Tusi discusses how organisms are able to adapt to their environments:. This is not the statement of Darwin. Sayyid Jalal Ashtiyani later summarized Mulla Sadra's concept as follows:. , Ibn al-Haytham also discussed space perception and its epistemological implications in his Book of Optics (1021). | HHS His "Floating Man" thought experiment tells its readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all sensations, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. ", "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man.". Simon van den Bergh, in his commentary on. Al-Ghazali (1095) Tahafut al-falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), ed. Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance and may have influenced Western philosophy and science.  In his Aporias against Ptolemy, Ibn al-Haytham further wrote the following comments on truth: Truth is sought for itself [but] the truths, [he warns] are immersed in uncertainties [and the scientific authorities (such as Ptolemy, whom he greatly respected) are] not immune from error..., Therefore, the seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them, but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration, and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. Later, the philosopher 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (13th century) tried to defend the Aristotelian conception of place in a treatise titled: Fi al-Radd ‘ala Ibn al-Haytham fi al-makan (A refutation of Ibn al-Haytham's place), although his effort was admirable from a philosophical standpoint, it was unconvincing from the scientific and mathematical viewpoints. Don’t those who reject faith see that the heavens and the earth were a single entity then … He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. Judeo-Islamic Philosophies (800–1400) This article covers the influence of Jewish and Islamic philosophy on each other, focusing especially on the period from 800–1400 CE. He further criticized Aristotle's idea that every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. In his Muqaddimah, he developed the earliest theories on social philosophy, in formulating theories of social cohesion and social conflict. 380 likes. In the 13th century, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi explains how the elements evolved into minerals, then plants, then animals, and then humans. For Saadia there was no problem as to creation: God created the world ex nihilo, just as the Bible attests; and he contests the theory of the Mutakallamin in reference to atoms, which theory, he declares, is just as contrary to reason and religion as the theory of the philosophers professing the eternity of matter. [...] The bodies are changing as a result of the internal and external interactions. He referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. Averroes, Maimonides' contemporary, was one of the last of the Islamic Peripatetics and set out to defend the views of the Falsafa against al-Ghazali's criticism. Important developments made by Muslim logicians included the development of "Avicennian logic" as a replacement of Aristotelian logic.  Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111) had an important influence on the use of logic in theology, making use of Avicennian logic in Kalam. We can achieve this goal if:-we are firm in the Six Articles of Eeman (Set of Beliefs) we comply with the Five Pillars of Islam (Acts of Worship) we abide by the rules of social and moral behaviour. 2008 Jan;32(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00266-007-9040-7. So according to this view, the philosophy of life and death, which are part of the creation of Allah, become clear. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge. The proof is also "cosmological insofar as most of it is taken up with arguing that contingent existents cannot stand alone and must end up in a Necessary Existent.". Avicenna elaborated on his definition of truth in his Metaphysics: The truth of a thing is the property of the being of each thing which has been established in it.. " Today, Islamic philosophical thought has also been criticized by scholars of the modern Salafi movement. Firstly, Islam perceives life as an integrated whole and for this reason sexuality and reproduction are parts of the whole Islamic system of life, not outside it. Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology in Dialogue: The Logos of Life and Cultural Interlacing Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka , Nazif Muhtaroglu , Detlev Quintern (eds.) Their attempt was one of the first to pursue a rational theology in Islam. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. . ", In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates back to at least the 10th century. This view was inspired by the creationism shared by Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Introduction The Islamic concept of teaching and learning is not limited to the memorization of Al- Quran and religious studies by Muslim scholars. Ray Spier (2002), "The history of the peer-review process". Since the political power shift in Western Europe (Spain and Portugal) from Muslim to Christian control, the Muslims naturally did not practice philosophy in Western Europe. The theories of Ibn Rushd do not differ fundamentally from those of Ibn Bajjah and Ibn Tufail, who only follow the teachings of Avicenna and Al-Farabi. These works likely had an influence on 19th-century evolutionists, and possibly Charles Darwin. Consequently, Avicenna's ontology is 'existentialist' when accounting for being–qua–existence in terms of necessity (wujub), while it is essentialist in terms of thinking about being–qua–existence in terms of "contingency–qua–possibility" (imkan or mumkin al-wujud, meaning "contingent being"). 42, 60. The great Asharite scholar Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi wrote the work Al-Mutakallimin fi 'Ilm al-Kalam against the Mutazalites. According to the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: For the Islamic philosophers, logic included not only the study of formal patterns of inference and their validity but also elements of the philosophy of language and even of epistemology and metaphysics. Contrary to the traditional view, Dimitri Gutas and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the true "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy, initiated by Al-Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the Madrasah curriculum and the subsequent rise of Avicennism.. Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", On the Sources of Islamic Law and Practices, The Journal of law and religion. Muslim philosophers both profess Islam and engage in a style of philosophy situated within the structure of the Arabic language and Islam, though not necessarily concerned with religious issues. An active school of philosophers in Spain, including the noted commentator Averroes (1126-1198 AD) explicitly rejected the thought of al-Ghazali and turned to an extensive evaluation of the thought of Aristotle. The Muslim physician-philosophers, Avicenna and Ibn al-Nafis, developed their own theories on the soul. But while Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and other Persian and Muslim philosophers hurried, so to speak, over subjects that trenched on traditional beliefs, Ibn Rushd delighted in dwelling upon them with full particularity and stress. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".. Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity.  In The Winding Motion, Ibn al-Haytham further wrote that faith should only apply to prophets of Islam and not to any other authorities, in the following comparison between the Islamic prophetic tradition and the demonstrative sciences: From the statements made by the noble Shaykh, it is clear that he believes in Ptolemy's words in everything he says, without relying on a demonstration or calling on a proof, but by pure imitation (taqlid); that is how experts in the prophetic tradition have faith in Prophets, may the blessing of God be upon them. More careful approaches are needed in terms of thinking about philosophers (and theologians) in Islam in terms of phenomenological methods of investigation in ontology (or onto-theology), or by way of comparisons that are made with Heidegger's thought and his critique of the history of metaphysics. Ibn al-Nafis wrote the Theologus Autodidactus as a defense of "the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world." Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads, and, applying his mind to the core and margins of its content, attack it from every side. Even poetics was considered as a syllogistic art in some fashion by most of the major Islamic Aristotelians. El-Bizri engages contemporary issues in philosophy through a fundamental critical analytic of the evolution of key concepts in the history of ontology and epistemology. Later Islamic scholars viewed this work as a response to Avicenna's metaphysical argument on spiritual resurrection (as opposed to bodily resurrection), which was earlier criticized by al-Ghazali.. There are several cosmological verses in the Qur'an (610–632) which some modern writers have interpreted as foreshadowing the expansion of the universe and possibly even the Big Bang theory:, Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? He investigated the theory of definition and classification and the quantification of the predicates of categorical propositions, and developed an original theory on "temporal modal" syllogism. Only the attributes of essence (sifat al-dhatia) can be ascribed to God, but not the attributes of action (sifat-al-fi'aliya). Ibn Hazm (994–1064) wrote the Scope of Logic, in which he stressed on the importance of sense perception as a source of knowledge. In the Book of Optics (c. 1025 CE), his scientific method was very similar to the modern scientific method and consisted of the following procedures:, In The Model of the Motions, Ibn al-Haytham also describes an early version of Occam's razor, where he employs only minimal hypotheses regarding the properties that characterize astronomical motions, as he attempts to eliminate from his planetary model the cosmological hypotheses that cannot be observed from Earth.. The opposite idea of "Existence precedes essence" was thus developed in the works of Averroes and Mulla Sadra as a reaction to this idea and is a key foundational concept of existentialism. Sharia (Islamic law) placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, but this approach was later displaced by ideas from Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy with the rise of the Mu'tazili philosophers, who highly valued Aristotle's Organon. This view was challenged by the Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more secular view and were supported by secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate. To prove the unity of God, Saadia uses the demonstrations of the Mutakallamin. Islamic political philosophy, was, indeed, rooted in the very sources of Islam, i.e. Even the 11th century al-Ghazali, known for his Incoherence of the Philosophers critique of philosophers, was himself an expert in philosophy and logic. The representatives of Islamic philosophy believe that before the creation of his body man's soul does not exist as an individual entity. The most important among them are: Illuminationist philosophy was a school of Islamic philosophy founded by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the 12th century. , Some argue that Avicenna anticipated Frege and Bertrand Russell in "holding that existence is an accident of accidents" and also anticipated Alexius Meinong's "view about nonexistent objects. For recent studies that engage in this line of research with care and thoughtful deliberation, see: methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, "Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West", Ancient Islamic (Arabic and Persian) Logic and Ontology, "La distinción entre esencia y existencia en Avicena", "Ibn Sina on necessary and possible existence", "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288)", Ibn al-Haytham: Brief life of an Arab mathematician, A 13th-Century Darwin? One cannot therefore make the claim that Avicenna was the proponent of the concept of essentialism per se, given that existence (al-wujud) when thought of in terms of necessity would ontologically translate into a notion of the "Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself" (wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi), which is without description or definition and, in particular, without quiddity or essence (la mahiyya lahu). It is also the case with monkeys, creatures combining in themselves cleverness and perception, in their relation to man, the being who has the ability to think and to reflect. ", While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his "Floating Man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. 2019 Oct;58(5):1698-1712. doi: 10.1007/s10943-019-00812-y. The Mu'tazili scientist and philosopher al-Jahiz (c. 776–869) was the first of the Muslim biologists and philosophers to develop an early theory of evolution.  The first English translation by Simon Ockley was published in 1708, and German and Dutch translations were also published at the time. , Avicenna's most influential theory in epistemology is his theory of knowledge, in which he developed the concept of tabula rasa. Box 700551, Dallas, Texas 75370-0551, USA Contact: +1 877-MINHAJ-1 Ibn Sina described the curriculum of a maktab school in some detail, describing the curricula for two stages of education in a maktab school. Tusi then goes on to explain how hereditary variability was an important factor for biological evolution of living things:. This philosophy prefers harmony of spirit and body, physical and spiritual hygiene. He believed that human beings are inherently flawed and that only God is perfect. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior. Saadia criticizes other philosophers severely. He reasoned that to discover the truth about nature, it is necessary to eliminate human opinion and error, and allow the universe to speak for itself. | A pupil of Hasan of Basra, Wasil ibn Ata, left the group when he disagreed with his teacher on whether a Muslim who has committed a major sin invalidates his faith. The life and death and basically, the changes in the material world and the transfer from one stage of life to another of it or the transfer from one world into another world, all of these play a part in the journey of man and the creations towards perfection. He argued that if instruments produce random errors because of their imperfections or idiosyncratic qualities, then multiple observations must be taken, analyzed qualitatively, and on this basis, arrive at a "common-sense single value for the constant sought", whether an arithmetic mean or a "reliable estimate. Promotive and prophylactic health aspects based on Islamic teachings. For instance, a sphere that has an equal surface area to that of a cylinder, would be larger in (volumetric) magnitude than the cylinder; hence, the sphere occupies a larger place than that occupied by the cylinder; unlike what is entailed by Aristotle's definition of place: that this sphere and that cylinder occupy places that are equal in magnitude. , In recent studies by Muslim contemporary thinkers that aim at "renewing the impetus of philosophical thinking in Islam," the philosopher and theorist Nader El-Bizri offers a critical analysis of the conventions that dominate mainstream academic and epistemic approaches in studying Islamic philosophy. He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account. These approaches, of methodology and historiography are looked at from archival standpoints within Oriental and Mediaevalist Studies, fail to recognize the fact that philosophy in Islam can still be a living intellectual tradition. Mohamad Abdalla (Summer 2007). At the 2nd century of the Hijra, a new movement arose in the theological school of Basra, Iraq. The preparedness (for transformation) that exists on either side, at each stage of the worlds, is meant when (we speak about) their connection. Everything begins from Him and everything returns to Him. Some argue that there is no indication that the limited knowledge and experience of humans can lead to truth. Because of territorial disputes with the Arabic grammarians, Islamic philosophers were very interested in working out the relationship between logic and language, and they devoted much discussion to the question of the subject matter and aims of logic in relation to reasoning and speech. In its narrowest sense it is a translation of Falsafa, meaning those particular schools of thought that most reflect the influence of Greek systems of philosophy such as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism. It removes them so as to make room for others. Fundamental to Islam is the belief in final judgment, necessitating an implied belief in life after death. Avicenna's proof for the existence of God was the first ontological argument, which he proposed in the Metaphysics section of The Book of Healing. But it is not the way that mathematicians have faith in specialists in the demonstrative sciences.. This poet also took upon himself to free his religion from what he saw as the shackles of speculative philosophy, and to this end wrote the "Kuzari," in which he sought to discredit all schools of philosophy alike. It evolves into an ape. The first writings on logic with non-Aristotelian elements was produced by al-Farabi (Alfarabi) (873–950), who discussed the topics of future contingents, the number and relation of the categories, the relation between logic and grammar, and non-Aristotelian forms of inference. According to this theory, therefore, the existence of this world is not only a possibility, as Avicenna declared, but also a necessity. From the 9th century onward, due to Caliph al-Ma'mun and his successor, ancient Greek philosophy was introduced among the arabs and the Peripatetic School began to find able representatives. [...] Animals that have no other means of defense (as the gazelle and fox) protect themselves with the help of flight and cunning. A History of Islamic Philosophy By Majid Fakhry Columbia University Press, 2004. Averroes commented in detail on most of the works of Aristotle and his commentaries did much to guide the interpretation of Aristotle in later Jewish and Christian scholastic thought. NLM Ibn al-Nafis dealt with Islamic eschatology in some depth in his Theologus Autodidactus, where he rationalized the Islamic view of eschatology using reason and science to explain the events that would occur according to Islamic eschatology. (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996). Early Islamic political philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance. The idea of "essence precedes existence" is a concept which dates back to Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and his school of Avicennism as well as Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and his Illuminationist philosophy. The philosophy of mind was studied in medieval Islamic psychological thought, which refers to the study of the nafs (literally "self" or "psyche" in Arabic) in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries) as well as modern times (20th–21st centuries), and is related to psychology, psychiatry and the neurosciences. Avicenna (980–1037) developed his own system of logic known as "Avicennian logic" as an alternative to Aristotelian logic. Avicenna's Approach to Health: A Reciprocal Interaction Between Medicine and Islamic Philosophy. His reasoning was adopted by many, most notably; Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi (Alkindus); the Jewish philosopher, Saadia Gaon (Saadia ben Joseph); and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali (Algazel). In Spain and Italy, Jewish translators such as Abraham de Balmes and Jacob Mantino translated Arabic philosophic literature into Hebrew and Latin, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy. His Muqaddimah was also the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history. The Mu'tazilites looked in towards a strict rationalism with which to interpret Islamic doctrine. In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect. , Ibn Abi al-Izz, a commentator on al-Tahhaawiyyah, condemns philosophers as the ones who "most deny the Last Day and its events. , The Islamic philosophers, Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis, were pioneers of the philosophical novel. Would you like email updates of new search results? The first original Arabic writings on logic were produced by al-Kindi (Alkindus) (805–873), who produced a summary on earlier logic up to his time. 1149) criticised Aristotle's "first figure" and developed a form of inductive logic, foreshadowing the system of inductive logic developed by John Stuart Mill (1806–1873). The most successful form of Islamic atomism was in the Asharite school of philosophy, most notably in the work of the philosopher al-Ghazali (1058–1111). Please note that studying it is compulsory for us in Algeria", Online Dictionary of Arabic Philosophical Terms, Philosophy in Oxford Islamic Studies Online, International Journal of Islamic Thoughts (IIITs), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Islamic_philosophy&oldid=995386333, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality. The works of Ibn Rushd especially became the subject of their study, due in great measure to Maimonides, who, in a letter addressed to his pupil Joseph ben Judah, spoke in the highest terms of Ibn Rushd's commentary. Islamic education is often erroneously perceived as education on religious matters, While Avicenna (980–1037) often relied on deductive reasoning in philosophy, he used a different approach in medicine. The term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence. Biruni was concerned with how to conceptualize and prevent both systematic errors and random errors, such as "errors caused by the use of small instruments and errors made by human observers." A significant fraction (one third, in fact) of the Quran deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details. His experimental proof of the intromission model of vision led to changes in the way the visual perception of space was understood, contrary to the previous emission theory of vision supported by Euclid and Ptolemy. The Muslims achieved a definite advance beyond previous historical writing in the sociological understanding of history and the systematisation of historiography. Ibn al-Haytham's mathematization of place rested on several geometric demonstrations, including his study on the sphere and other solids, which showed that the sphere (al-kura) is the largest in magnitude (volumetric) with respect to other geometric solids that have equal surface areas. , Al-Biruni's scientific method was similar to the modern scientific method in many ways, particularly his emphasis on repeated experimentation. In one hand there is extraordinary importance attached to religion in Islamic civilization and in other hand they created certain doctrines in respect to reason and religion.. Then he reduced the chief propositions of the Mutakallamin, to prove the unity of God, to ten in number, describing them at length, and concluding in these terms: "Does the Kalam give us more information concerning God and His attributes than the prophet did?" The Arab polymath al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; died c. 1041) presented a thorough mathematical critique and refutation of Aristotle's conception of place (topos) in his Risala/Qawl fi’l-makan (Treatise/Discourse on Place). First such argument against the ancient Greek notion of an analysis Greek political treatise known to medieval at. Languages of the Hijra, a Latin translation of Philosophus Autodidactus was published 1671. Of Suhrawardi cut off serious critical scrutiny ) often relied on deductive reasoning in through. Describing the idea of artificial selection and then applying it to nature: 41. The way that mathematicians have faith in specialists in the theological school of Islamic studies fiqh... 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